Plant density and spacing are critical to ensure crops make best use of environmental conditions so that yield potentials are reached.
Maintenance of optimum pH ensures nutrients are readily available. The use of herbicides or cultivation will remove any weed competition.
Growers can minimize the competitive effects of strong vegetative development by pruning. However, it is important to avoid excessive pruning as un-shaded crops can be at risk of sunscald.
The control of salinity within the root environment, and water supply management, will maximize growth and ensure good nutrient availability.
The use of fungicides and insecticides will reduce the incidence of yield and quality sapping diseases and pests.