FAO: the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, a specialized agency of the UN, leading international efforts to defeat hunger.
farming for health: a concept including the utilization of farms and farm animals, plants and landscapes as a basis for promoting human mental and physical health and social well-being.
fertilizer: substances added to the soil (solid, liquid or gaseous material) containing one or more recognized plant nutrients, such as nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus Fertilizers, which can be either organic or inorganic in nature, supply plant nutrients (plant foods), to the soil to improve the quality or quantity of plant growth. (IFA+ Soil-Net)
food chain: a sequence of organisms from photosynthetic plants to top carnivores through a few intermediary organisms, through which energy and nutrients move within an ecosystem, transferred from one living organism to another, beginning with photosynthesis – ending with consumption and, ultimately, decomposition.
food safety: a condition achieved by a series of actions, including processing and handling, storage and preparation, aimed at ensuring that all food is as safe as possible, reducing health hazards and preventing food poisoning and food-borne illness. Food safety policies and actions need to cover the entire food chain, from production to consumption.
food security: a condition where all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences. Opposite: food insecurity exists when people are undernourished as a result of the physical unavailability of food, their lack of social or economic access to adequate food, and/or inadequate food utilization.
food sovereignty: a concept defining people’s right to define their own food chain and agriculture, incl. protecting and regulating domestic agricultural production and trade in order to achieve sustainable development objectives; to determine the extent to which they want to be self-reliant; and to restrict the dumping of products in their markets.
fossil fuels: fuels derived from the fossilized remains of plants and animals, mainly coal, petroleum and natural gas – all are non-renewable resources.
fresh water: surface water and groundwater available for irrigation, urban and industrial use and natural watercourses.